Τissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the gold standard for emergency treatment of ischemic stroke, which is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Major challenges of tPA therapy are its rapid elimination by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and hepatic clearance, leading to the use of high doses and consequent serious side effects, including internal bleeding, swelling and low blood pressure. In this regard, we developed three polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated tPA bioconjugates based on the recombinant human tPA drug Alteplase using site-specific conjugation strategies. The first bioconjugate with PEGylation at the N-terminus of tPA performed by reductive alkylation showed a reduced proteolytic activity of 68 % compared to wild type tPA. PEGylation at the single-free cysteine of tPA with linear and branched PEG revealed similar proteolytic activities as the wild-type protein. Moreover, both bioconjugates with PEG-cysteine-modification showed 2-fold slower inhibition kinetics by PAI-1. All bioconjugates increased in hydrodynamic size as a critical requirement for half-life extension.
Kirstin Meiners, Prisca Hamm, Marcus Gutmann, Jan Niedens, Agnieszka Nowak-Król, Salvador Pané, Tessa Lühmann, Site-specific PEGylation of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2023.09.017.
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